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Table 2 Means (SD) for prior knowledge, mental effort, difficulty, exercise, and test performance per condition

From: Comparison of different approaches on example-based learning for novice and proficient learners

  Example-problem pairs Simultaneous example and problem
Mathematics Business Mathematics Business
M SD M SD M SD M SD
Prior knowledge (maximum 6) 3.60 1.22 2.25 1.26 3.64 1.36 2.36 0.99
Mental effort in learning phase (maximum 72) 41.87 16.31 53.97 12.39 41.04 17.41 50.36 14.59
Difficulty in learning phase (maximum 72) 34.54 11.46 51.04 13.15 36.6 15.75 44.54 12.57
Mental effort in test tasks (maximum 54) 31.45 13.14 37.95 10.95 27.20 15.22 40.04 10.82
Difficulty in test phase (maximum 54) 24.92 10.77 34.09 9.36 24.32 13.64 37.63 11.63
Exercise score (maximum 16) 12.27 2.65 10.22 4.03 13.38 1.64 12.93 2.15
Near-transfer test score (maximum 16) 12.54 3.20 8.82 3.76 12.36 3.54 10.41 4.03
Far-transfer test score (maximum 8) 7.12 1.31 4.93 2.66 6.94 1.40 5.54 2.27
Total test score (maximum 24) 19.67 4.40 13.75 6.10 19.30 4.40 15.95 3.68