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Table 9 Classification performance of the Bayesian based classifier in identifying legitimate and adversarial users for 3 different attack scenarios (against naive adversaries, against strong adversaries, and against both strong and naive adversaries) for given question types for \(n=1\), \(n=3\), and \(n=6\) questions respectively

From: Evaluating smartphone-based dynamic security questions for fallback authentication: a field study

  Against naive Against strong+naive Against strong
TPR (%) FPR (%) F1 score (%) Accuracy (%) TPR (%) FPR (%) F1 score (%) Accuracy (%) TPR (%) FPR (%) F1 score (%) Accuracy (%)
Call n = 1 87.0 3.1 89.7 91.8 79.3 6.6 82.1 88.4 75.2 10.2 80.4 82.1
n = 3 95.9 4.7 95.9 96.0 90.7 2.1 92.8 95.7 89.1 2.7 92.7 93.1
n = 6 100.0 4.2 98.2 97.8 98.1 0.6 98.3 98.9 95.9 0.8 97.4 97.5
SMS n = 1 76.8 5.0 82.3 86.2 69.7 10.7 73.7 81.6 65.1 14.3 72.1 74.5
n = 3 93.4 4.4 94.7 94.1 88.1 8.2 87.4 90.2 86.2 12.6 87.4 86.8
n = 6 97.8 4.0 97.3 96.8 94.2 5.5 92.3 94.3 92.8 7.8 93.1 92.6
Location n = 1 84.3 7.1 86.0 89.1 75.1 14.4 73.4 82.3 70.8 17.0 74.0 77.0
n = 3 96.3 3.2 96.8 96.3 93.2 10.5 88.3 90.7 88.7 16.7 87.3 85.8
n = 6 99.2 0.0 99.6 99.5 97.1 7.7 92.1 93.8 95.2 14.5 91.8 90.4
App n = 1 89.6 3.7 93.0 92.2 88.3 12.9 85.9 87.3 86.5 21.3 85.7 82.7
n = 3 95.0 0.0 97.3 97.1 93.8 2.8 94.7 95.7 92.7 5.0 94.3 93.4
n = 6 94.7 0.0 97.2 97.1 94.0 0.2 96.5 97.6 92.8 0.6 95.8 95.9
Music n = 1 83.1 6.5 87.0 87.7 79.9 16.7 76.1 81.6 78.2 28.7 76.2 74.2
n = 3 94.2 0.2 96.7 96.8 91.9 9.3 88.7 91.1 88.6 15.6 87.7 85.9
n = 6 96.5 0.0 98.2 98.2 95.9 5.7 93.3 94.8 95.2 9.3 93.4 92.6
Activity n = 1 93.3 6.2 93.4 93.2 87.2 17.2 81.5 83.9 83.1 27.1 81.5 78.1
n = 3 95.9 0.0 97.8 98.0 93.5 7.4 90.8 92.6 91.4 17.1 90.1 86.8
n = 6 96.5 0.0 98.2 98.0 95.5 4.0 94.4 95.6 93.7 7.6 94.2 93.2
Battery n = 1 89.3 7.2 91.8 90.3 86.4 8.0 87.9 89.5 84.9 8.8 88.5 87.7
n = 3 94.0 1.8 96.1 95.9 90.7 2.0 93.5 95.3 90.5 3.0 94.0 93.6
n = 6 95.3 0.0 97.5 97.3 92.9 0.0 96.0 97.4 93.1 0.0 96.2 96.4
  1. Four performance measures are shown: TPR, FPR, F1 score and accuracy