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Table 1 SPECTRUM applied to real-world mobile crowdsensing applications

From: Adopting incentive mechanisms for large-scale participation in mobile crowdsensing: from literature review to a conceptual framework

Mobile crowdsensing application Socioeconomic factors Privacy Effort Commercial-interest Term Requirements Usefulness Money Type of incentive adopted
Will participants’ social or economic needs be met? Is there high privacy risk? Is the effort required generally considered to be high, low, moderate? Is there a business interest or motive to profit financially? Is the term long, short, or seasonal? Is there a strict requirement in terms of data quality, quantity, or area coverage? How beneficial is the collected data to the general public? How well is money or other available resources a limiting factor?
BudBurst Mobile [109] Yes, social interactions with other users Moderate High No Seasonal Area coverage Understanding the effects of global climate change Not discussed; implied Gamification i.e. floracaching game; altruistic contribution to scientific knowledge of plant’s life cycle
Waze [110] Yes, social needs are met through gaming entertainment; economic through time and gas money savings in traffic High Low Yes Long term No Helping citizens save time and gas money on their daily commute through road traffic Not discussed; implied Gamification; other social incentives such as increased reputation in community, savings on fuel when commuting
NoiseMap [111] Yes, need for a serene urban environment; social interactions with other users Moderate Moderate No Long term Quality and quantity Monitoring of urban noise pollution Not discussed; implied Social i.e. ranking of participants according to contributions
NoiseTube [112] Yes, need for a serene urban environment Moderate Moderate No Long term No Monitoring of urban noise pollution Not discussed; implied Social i.e. altruistic contribution to local environment
NoiseSPY [113] Yes, need for a serene urban environment Moderate Moderate No Long term No Monitoring of urban noise pollution Not discussed; implied Social i.e. altruistic contribution to local environment
Crowdsignal and Algosnap [114] Yes, economic reward Low–High Low–High Yes Short–long term Quality, quantity and area coverage Data for academic research Reward is based on budget and task Monetary
Premise [115] Yes, economic reward Low–High Low–High Yes Short–long term Quality, quantity and area coverage Data used by private companies and partners Reward is based on budget and task Monetary
GasMobile [116] Yes, need for cleaner city Moderate Low No Long term Quality Monitoring of urban air pollution Not discussed; implied Service i.e. Information feedback
Ikarus [117] Yes, through paragliding sport. No Moderate No Long term Not a necessity Sensed data is used to create thermal map for the paragliding community Not discussed; implied Social i.e. increased reputation in the paragliding community
LiveCompare [118] Yes, grocery shoppers save money on purchase Moderate Moderate No Long term No Only participating grocery shoppers save money on purchase Not discussed; implied Service i.e. grocery bargain hunting