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Table 4 Summary of results

From: Exploring the affective, motivational and cognitive effects of pedagogical agent enthusiasm in a multimedia learning environment

  Control (neutral agent) [mean, SD] Experimental (enthusiastic agent) [mean, SD] p value (2-tailed)
Positive emotion
Positive affect score (PAS)* M = 28.6, SD = 10.5 M = 34.5, SD = 9.9 .019
Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation scores** M = 23.0, SD = 8.9 M = 29.1, SD = 9.4 .007
Perception of multimedia learning environment
The environment is enjoyable** M = 2.6, SD = 1.1 M = 3.5, SD = 1.4 .005
Willingness to return** M = 2.5, SD = 1.6 M = 3.5, SD = 1.4 .006
Total perception** M = 5.1, SD = 2.5 M = 7.0, SD = 2.5 .002
Perception of virtual agent
Likability M = 3.1, SD = 1.5  M = 3.6, SD = 1.2  .095
Knowledgeable M = 4.1, SD = 1.7  M = 4.3, SD = 1.3  .509
Friendliness* M = 3.3, SD = 1.8  M = 4.2, SD = 1.2  .012
Credibility M = 3.7, SD = 1.9  M = 4.3, SD = 1.2  .137
Willingness to learn again* M = 2.9, SD = 1.5  M = 3.8, SD = 1.4  .012
Total Perception* M = 17.0, SD = 7.1 M = 10.2, SD = 4.9 .035
Extraneous cognitive load
Perceived task difficulty M = 3.8, SD = 1.8 M = 3.6, SD = 1.5 .58
Cognitive outcome
Post-test scores* M = 3.7, SD = 3.4 M = 5.8, SD = 3.4 .012
  1. * p < .05
  2. ** p < .01