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Table 1 Definitions of online hate

From: Developing an online hate classifier for multiple social media platforms

Definition of online hate



“Language that is used to expresses hatred towards a targeted group or is intended to be derogatory, to humiliate, or to insult the members of the group”

Davidson et al. [16] (p. 215)

Language, target

“Hateful comments toward a specific group or target”

Salminen et al. [5] (p. 330), adapted from [109]

Target, group

“[Hate speech is] either ‘directed’ towards a specific person or entity, or ‘generalized’ towards a group of people sharing a common protected characteristic”

ElSherief et al. [67] (p. 1)

Target, group

“Comments that are rude, disrespectful or otherwise likely to make someone leave a discussion”

Almerekhi et al. [73], adapted from Jigsaw’s toxic comment classification challenge in Kagglea

Individual, comments, consequences

“An offensive post, motivated, in whole or in a part, by the writer’s bias against an aspect of a group of people”

Mondal et al. [32] (p. 87)

Language, group, target

Offensive name calling, purposefully embarrassing others, stalking, harassing sexually, physically threatening, and harassing in a sustained manner

Wulzyn et al. [7], adapted from Pew Research Center


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