Skip to main content

Table 1 Definitions of online hate

From: Developing an online hate classifier for multiple social media platforms

Definition of online hateSourceFocus
“Language that is used to expresses hatred towards a targeted group or is intended to be derogatory, to humiliate, or to insult the members of the group”Davidson et al. [16] (p. 215)Language, target
“Hateful comments toward a specific group or target”Salminen et al. [5] (p. 330), adapted from [109]Target, group
“[Hate speech is] either ‘directed’ towards a specific person or entity, or ‘generalized’ towards a group of people sharing a common protected characteristic”ElSherief et al. [67] (p. 1)Target, group
“Comments that are rude, disrespectful or otherwise likely to make someone leave a discussion”Almerekhi et al. [73], adapted from Jigsaw’s toxic comment classification challenge in KaggleaIndividual, comments, consequences
“An offensive post, motivated, in whole or in a part, by the writer’s bias against an aspect of a group of people”Mondal et al. [32] (p. 87)Language, group, target
Offensive name calling, purposefully embarrassing others, stalking, harassing sexually, physically threatening, and harassing in a sustained mannerWulzyn et al. [7], adapted from Pew Research CenterLanguage
  1. a