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Table 2 Comparation between different phase shift based localization systems

From: Indoor acoustic localization: a survey

  Equipment Signal Time latency (ms) Accuracy
Swadloon [27] Anchor speakers; smartphones with one microphone and inertial sensors Continuous wave around 20 kHz 250 The mean error of direction finding is around 2.1\(^{\circ }\) when the range is 32 m, 90-percentile errors are under 0.92 m
FingerIO [46] Smart devices with one speaker and two microphones OFDM in the range of 18–20 kHz, the bandwidth of each subcarrier is 375 Hz 5.92 The average accuracy of 2D tracking for smartphones is 8 mm, for smart watches is 1.2 cm
LLAP [34] Smart devices with one speaker and two microphones Multiple continuous waves(cosine waves) with frequencies in the range of 17–23 kHz 15 The tracking accuracy for 1D is 3.5 mm, for 2D is 4.6 mm
Strata [77] Smart devices with one speaker and two microphones Single-carrier modulated signal with the frequency in the range of 18–22 kHz, 26-bit GSM training sequence 12.5 The distance tracking error is 0.3 cm, the 2D tracking error is 1 cm, the drawing error in 2D is 0.6
Vernier [81] Two anchor speakers (e.g., speakers on the TVs); smart device with a microphone Continuous wave (sine wave with the frequency at 20 kHz or 17.5 kHz for 2D) 10 The median error is under 2 mm for 1D when the distance between the speaker and the receiver is 7 m, the median error for 2D is under 4 mm