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Table 1 Comparisons of signal propagation model and location fingerprinting method

From: Wi-Fi indoor positioning and navigation: a cloudlet-based cloud computing approach

  Signal propagation mode Location fingerprinting method
Technique RSS [2, 21], ToA [22,23,24], TDoA [25], AoA [26, 27], AoD [28] Fingerprinting [29]
Measurements Signal strength, angles Fingerprint database
Accuracy Medium High
Time cost Low High
Distance Low Medium
Algorithm Deterministic Deterministic and probabilistic
Specification Time based Range based
Advantages Additional special-purpose hardware is not required
Acceptable cost and accessibility
Addresses some of the problems related to non-line-of-sight and multipath propagation [29]
Does not require exact locations of access points [30]
Disadvantages More difficult regarding synchronization of receiver/transmitter-side times and accuracy of short-range flight time measurements
For angle calculation, complex hardware is required to determine the angle of arrival
Poor positioning accuracy in real-world indoor environments because of a complex accurate propagation model [30, 31]
Multipath is an issue with signal propagation
Time-consuming and laborious
Accurate fingerprint data depends on the autonomic construction of a fingerprint database
When real-world indoor environments change significantly, the fingerprint database has to be rebuilt [29]