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Table 6 Email cues identified in previous research by Parsons et al. [130]

From: Don’t click: towards an effective anti-phishing training. A comparative literature review

Cue Description
Consistency Structure and focus of information
Links URL, https, address bar
Visual presentation Logos, banners, visual presentation, general design and look
Personalization Personalization of the content inc. language and content aspects
Security Security indicators and status bar
Spelling and grammatical errors Spelling and grammar (mistakes)
Legal Copyright information and legal disclaimers
Sender Sender, his or her address, contact methods
Familiarity Credibility and level of trust in source
Importance Rational appeals
Urgency Time pressure, overly urgent or forceful language/content
Positive and negative consequences Emotional and motivational appeals, premise of the appeal, underlying motive of the website (and potential incentives as positive consequence)