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Table 5 Different cryptographic symbol descriptions and execution time

From: SD2PA: a fully safe driving and privacy-preserving authentication scheme for VANETs

Operations Descriptions The execution time (ms)
\( T_{sm - e} \) Execution time for calculating the elliptic curve point multiplication 0.3476
\( T_{sm - e - s} \) Execution time for small-scale scalar point multiplication operation based on elliptic curve 0.0246
\( T_{pa - e} \) Execution time for calculating the elliptic curve point addition 0.002
\( T_{h} \) Execution time for the general hash operation 0.0012
\( T_{aes - e} \) Execution time for the encryption in the AES algorithm 0.183
\( T_{aes - d} \) Execution time for the decryption in AES algorithm 0.157