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Table 1 A critical analyses of different techniques proposed for B5G/6G systems

From: The shift to 6G communications: vision and requirements

Technology enabler Pros Cons Use cases Research initiatives
Quantum Communication (QC) and QML [72, 75] Faster
High-performance processing Power
Costly
Complex
Drug industry
Radar industry
Mathematics
D-Wave Systems Inc.
IBM Corporation
Intel Corporation
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited
Blockchain [61, 77, 78, 80] Distributed
Stability
Integrity
Immutability
Traceability
Inefficient
High storage
Privacy concerns
Decentralize
Supply-chain
Voting
Healthcare
Security
Digital identity
IBM
Alibaba Group (China)
Fujitsu  (Japan)
Mastercard
ING Groep (Dutch banking firm)
Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS)s [55, 56] Low complexity
Power efficient
Low cost
Difficulty in phase configuration Comm. and Defense industry - World-wide
Tactile Internet and Haptics [35, 84, 85] Online gaming
Revolutionize the life of disabled peoples
Noise
Less energy efficient
Costly
Mining
Automation
Online gaming
VR and AR
TU of Dresden in Germany
Kings College London
Ericsson and Microsoft
Ultrahaptics UK
Access Technologies [40, 43,44,45] Improved network efficiency Economic Loss due to replacement of existing equipment Variable use cases World-wide
New Spectrum -mmWaves
THz
VLC [47,48,49,50,51,52]
Higher bandwidth availability Low penetration power Variable use cases World-wide
Internet-of-Everything (IoE) [66, 68, 110] Low latency
Higher data rates
Low energy efficiency Variable use cases Worldwide